Neeraja H. Gokhale,* Anirudh B. Acharya,* Vidya S. Patil,† Dheeraj J. Trivedi,† Swati Setty,* and Srinath L. Thakur*
*Department of Periodontics, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Dental Sciences & Hospital.
†Department of Biochemistry, Sri Dharmasthala Manjunatheshwara College of Medical Sciences & Hospital.
Background: Resistin is associated with local and systemic inflammatory conditions with a direct correlation with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this clinico-biochemical study is to estimate and compare the levels of resistin in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in health, chronic periodontitis (CP), and T2DM.
Methods: Sixty patients (aged >35 years) who participated in this study were divided into four groups of 15 patients each: healthy individuals (group 1), patients with CP (group 2), patients with T2DM (group 3), and patients with T2DM and CP (group 4). The parameters assessed included plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), periodontal index, body mass index, random blood sugar (RBS), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). GCF (4 μL) was collected and analyzed for resistin levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: Resistin was detected in the GCF of all patients. A significant difference was observed in GCF resistin concentrations from group 1 versus group 2 (P = 0.0093), group 3 (P = 0.0341), and group 4 (P = 0.0002); in group 2 versus group 4 (P = 0.0032); and in group 3 versus group 4 (P = 0.0008). When all the samples were analyzed together, GCF resistin levels positively correlated with GI, PD, PI, RBS, and HbA1c and were predictable with PD and HbA1c.
Conclusions: Resistin levels are increased in CP and T2DM. Hence, GCF resistin levels may be considered as a potential inflammatory marker for periodontitis with T2DM.