“In a book called The Propaganda Model Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky proposed a concrete model for the filtering processes (biases) of mainstream media, especially in the United States, called the propaganda model. They tested this empirically and presented extensive quantified evidence supporting the model. Through an extensive analysis of the financial roots that drive American news media as well as an in-depth look at coverage of specific news events, Herman and Chomsky demonstrate that mainstream news content represents the political and economic interests of the state and other varied powerful corporate entities.
Any content that runs contrary to this status quo faces challenges in establishing mainstream credibility, and is consequently prohibited from being able to contribute to the democratic public sphere. The model is based upon four filters that impact news content. These filters are the consolidation of media ownership to a scant few all-powerful corporations, the influence and integration of advertising in mass media, the dubious reliability of experts and sources utilized by the news, and the concept of flak, which involves controlled negative responses to media content.
They also note the importance of the historical context of anticommunism in the 20th century as a way to see how the mass media is prioritized to deliver a very specific narrative in the news.”